Nahmod Law

Archive for the ‘Civil Rights – Section 1983’ Category

All My Section 1983 Posts to 10-12-15


It has been a while since I reorganized all of my posts (including videos and podcasts) in order to provide greater and more efficient accessibility for readers. There are now more than 150 posts.

I consider this reorganization important, and I hope it is also useful to you, because my posts are not intended to be of short-term utility. Instead, they are intended to serve the continuing educational needs of lawyers, law students, academics and the public at large.

I encourage you to search within each post for case names, topics and the like, that you are interested in.

I thank all of you for your ongoing support of this blog. I also invite you to follow me on Twitter @NahmodLaw.

Sheldon Nahmod (


What follows is the first of four posts (three are rather long) comprising all of my posts (with links) divided into the following four parts and four corresponding posts: PART I: SECTION 1983; PART II: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW; PART III: FIRST AMENDMENT; PART IV: EDUCATION


My New Video on Section 1983 Basics

All My Videos: Constitutional Law, Section 1983 and SCOTUS

Section 1983 Supreme Court Decisions–2009: A Video Presentation

A Section 1983 Podcast: Damages and Procedural Defenses

From Monroe to Connick: Video

From Monroe to Connick: Podcast

Article: The Long and Winding Road from Monroe to Connick

“Section 1983 Is Born”: A Working Paper

My New Article: The Birth of Section 1983 in the Supreme Court

A Section 1983 Primer (1): History, Purposes and Scope

A Section 1983 Primer (2): The Seminal Decision of Monroe v. Pape

A Section 1983 Primer (3): Constitutional States of Mind

A Section 1983 Primer (4): Causation and the Mt. Healthy Burden-Shift Rule

A Section 1983 Primer (5): Statutes of Limitations

A Section 1983 Primer (6): Claim and Issue Preclusion

A Section 1983 Primer (7): Introduction to Absolute Individual Immunity

A Section 1983 Primer (8): Absolute Legislative Immunity

A Section 1983 Primer (9): Absolute Judicial Immunity Read the rest of this entry »

Written by snahmod

October 12, 2015 at 2:48 pm

A Third Circuit Statute of Limitations Case: Accrual, the Continuing Violation Doctrine and Equitable Tolling


In a much-read post of October 27, 2011,  entitled A Section 1983 Primer (5): Statutes of Limitation, I blogged about statutes of limitations in section 1983 cases. There I briefly discussed the complicated issues of (1) choosing the right state statute of limitation, (2) accrual of section 1983 claims and (3) when section 1983 claims are tolled.

Subsequently, in my post of June 17, 2013, entitled A Section 1983 Primer (10): Statutes of Limitation and Accrual After Heck v. Humphrey, I discussed the special accrual rule of Heck v. Humphrey, 512 U.S. 477 (1994), that applies where the plaintiff has a prior conviction whose validity might be implicated by a successful section 1983 damages action.

Then, in my post of June 9, 2014, entitled A Section 1983 Primer (11): Statutes of Limitation and Continuing Violations, I discussed the continuing violation doctrine and quoted Judge Posner‘s useful statement of that doctrine.

This post addresses Montanez v. Secretary Pennsylvania Dept. of Corrections, 773 F.3d 472 (3rd Cir. 2014), amending and superseding, 763 F.3d 257 (3rd Cir. 2014), which has something for almost everyone on accrual, the continuing violation doctrine and equitable tolling.

The Montanez Case

In Montanez, the plaintiff inmates sued corrections officials under section 1983 alleging that the department of corrections violated procedural due process through the automatic deduction of funds from their inmate accounts to cover court-ordered restitution, fines and costs. Their arguments were that they should have been provided by the department with some notice of the policy and an opportunity to be heard prior to the first deduction and, also, that the current procedures were insufficient.

The Third Circuit affirmed the district court’s dismissal of the complaint of one of the inmates on the ground that it was time-barred under Pennsylvania’s two year limitations period. The inmate’s claim accrued when the defendants began deducting funds from his account on April 6, 2000 (which he knew about), but he only filed his lawsuit on November 29, 2004. At the very latest his claim accrued when he filed a grievance challenging the deductions on November 17, 2002.

The Third Circuit went on reject the inmate’s continuing violation doctrine argument because he was aware of the relevant injury shortly after it occurred. Furthermore, even though the defendants continued to make deductions thereafter until 2010, when the inmate’s debt was satisfied, their “decision to enforce the … policy against [plaintiff] and its first deduction from his prison account constituted a discrete and independently actionable act, which triggered [his] obligation to assert his rights.”

Finally, the Third Circuit rejected plaintiff’s equitable tolling/fraudulent concealment argument based on Pennsylvania law. There was no fraudulent concealment here but, even if there was, the allegedly fraudulent statements of the defendants were made in response to grievances he filed more than two years after his cause of action accrued. “[Plaintiff] simply delayed too long to take advantage of equitable tolling doctrines.”


1. Accrual: In Montanez, the Section 1983 claim accrued under the applicable federal law of accrual–the discovery rule– when the inmate first knew of the injury to him and who likely caused it, which was on April 6, 2000 or, at the latest, on November 17, 2002.

2. The Continuing Violation Doctrine: Even though the effects–the continuing deductions–of the defendants’ allegedly unconstitutional act lasted for approximately 10 years, that was not enough to constitute a continuing violation. The focus for this purpose was on the first discrete act, namely, the first deduction on April 6, 2000.

3. Equitable tolling/fraudulent concealment: It is important to understand that under applicable Supreme Court precedents, the forum state’s tolling law governs section 1983 claims. And that tolling law includes not only formal tolling law set out in the forum state’s statutes but also state tolling law that is not statutory, such as equitable tolling and/or fraudulent concealment.

I invite you to follow me on Twitter @NahmodLaw.


Written by snahmod

August 31, 2015 at 10:04 am

More Post-Iqbal Supervisory Liability Cases in the Circuits


My very first post, on August 19, 2009, dealt with the implications for supervisory liability of Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. 1937 (2009). This was followed by my post on October 16, 2009, setting out my view that Iqbal got it right on supervisory liability. Readers should consult these posts for relevant background.

In addition, I blogged on July 20, 2011, and on July 11, 2014, about post-Iqbal supervisory liability decisions in the circuits.

This past year, I was preparing the 2015 Update to my treatise, CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES LITIGATION: THE LAW OF SECTION 1983 (4th ed.; West Group), when I came across recent Second, Third, Fourth and Eighth Circuit court decisions dealing with supervisory liability.

Here they are for your reading pleasure.

Second Circuit: Raspardo v. Carlone

A Second Circuit police supervisory liability case involved, among other things, § 1983 sexually hostile work environment claims against a police supervisor for failing to supervise a subordinate who sexually harassed the plaintiffs, former and current female police officers. Ruling for the supervisor on these claims, the Second Circuit, after noting that its pre-Iqbal decisions used a gross negligence standard for supervisory liability, observed that it did not have to decide whether this was still correct because even under that standard the supervisor was not liable. “He neither created a hostile work environment through his own direct actions nor was grossly negligent in his supervision or investigation of subordinate officers who allegedly harassed the plaintiffs on the basis of sex.”

Indeed, as soon as the supervisor became aware of the subordinate’s improper remarks to one of the plaintiffs, he placed him on administrative leave, and then began a broader investigation, including informing the prosecutor’s office when he learned of the subordinate’s sexual misconduct involving another plaintiff. The supervisor subsequently recommended the subordinate’s termination. Thus, the supervisor did not violate the plaintiffs’ constitutional rights either directly or in his supervisory capacity. Raspardo v. Carlone, 770 F.3d 97 (2nd Cir. 2014).

Third Circuit: Barkes v. First Correctional Medical, Inc.

In a Third Circuit case involving a prison suicide, the court addressed whether and to what extent Iqbal affected the circuit’s precedent on supervisory liability in an Eighth Amendment setting. It noted that most courts had gravitated to the “center” such that the state of mind necessary for supervisory liability varies just as does the state of mind necessary for the underlying constitutional violation. The Third Circuit went on to determine that this was its position as well, at least in this case. Thus, in an Eighth Amendment setting, the state of mind necessary for supervisory liability is subjective deliberate indifference, just as it is for the Eighth Amendment violation itself. This was consistent with the circuit precedent in Eighth Amendment cases. Sample v. Diecks, 885 F.2d 1099 (3rd Cir. 1989).

However, the Third Circuit left open the supervisory liability question with regard to different constitutional violations. Barkes v. First Correctional Medical, Inc., 766 F.3d 307 (3rd Cir. 2014), cert granted sub nom Taylor v. Barkes and judgment reversed on qualified immunity grounds, 135 S. Ct. 2042 (2015)(per curiam).

Judge Hardiman dissented in the Third Circuit, arguing that after Iqbal more was now required for supervisory liability: personal involvement and identifying a specific supervisory practice or procedure. Neither was shown here by the plaintiffs. He also argued that the defendants were entitled to qualified immunity, as the Supreme Court per curiam ultimately ruled in this case.

Fourth Circuit: Wilkins v. Montgomery

In a decision involving a § 1983 supervisory liability claim against an assistant director at a state mental hospital that was brought by a mother whose son was murdered by another patient, the Fourth Circuit, without discussing Iqbal, simply applied the three-part test of Shaw v. Stroud, 13 F.3d 791 (4th Cir. 1994),  and found that there was insufficient evidence of any of the three elements required for supervisory liability. Wilkins v. Montgomery, 751 F.3d 214 (4th Cir. 2014).

Eighth Circuit: Jackson v. Nixon

In Jackson v. Nixon, 747 F.3d 537 (8th Cir. 2014), the Eighth Circuit emphasized the personal involvement requirement where the director of the Missouri Department of Corrections and the warden and the director of substance abuse treatment program in a correctional center were sued under § 1983 for allegedly violating the First Amendment free exercise rights of the plaintiff atheist inmate by requiring him to participate in religious activities as part of his treatment.

As to the director of the department of corrections, state law gave him authority to make prison-wide policy decisions, including those concerning substance abuse treatment programs, which meant that his alleged failure to act constituted the requisite personal involvement.

As to the warden, general supervisory authority was insufficient. The plaintiff had to show the warden’s direct involvement in the formation, implementation or enforcement of the allegedly unconstitutional policy, which he had not yet done.

Finally, as to the director of the substance abuse treatment program, the plaintiff plausibly alleged her personal involvement when he claimed that she did not ameliorate the constitutional violation by allowing him to avoid the religious parts of the program.

Judge Smith dissented, 747 F.3d 537, 546, on the ground that the plaintiff did not allege a violation of his First Amendment free exercise rights in the first place.


Of these four cases, only the Third Circuit in Barkes expressly applied Iqbal‘s holding to the case before it. But even it hedged a bit when it stated that its decision was limited to the Eighth Amendment.

In contrast, the Second Circuit in Raspardo avoided taking a stand on Iqbal in ruling that even under its more lenient pre-Iqbal standard the plaintiff lost on her supervisory liability equal protection claim (which required purposeful discrimination).

The Fourth Circuit in Wilkins did not address Iqbal at all, but still found against the plaintiff.

Finally, the Eighth Circuit in Jackson ruled in a manner consistent with Iqbal (all the while emphasizing personal involvement) because several of the defendants apparently acted with the requisite purpose for a Free Exercise Clause violation.



Written by snahmod

July 23, 2015 at 4:01 pm

Section 1983 Malicious Prosecution (VI): Third and Fourth Circuit Decisions with a Fabrication of Evidence Twist

I blogged on Sept. 11, 2009, about the basic elements of so-called section 1983malicious prosecution” claims. I then blogged on 9-8-11, 9-26-11, 8-7-134-8-14 and 5-11-15 about section 1983 malicious prosecution cases in the circuits.

What follows are recent section 1983 malicious prosecution/fabrication of evidence decisions from the Third and Fourth Circuits that I ran across in preparing the 2015 Update to my treatise, CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES LITIGATION: THE LAW OF SECTION 1983 (4th ed. West).

Halsey v. Pfeiffer (3rd Circuit)

In Halsey v. Pfeiffer, 750 F.3d 273 (3rd Cir. 2014), an important case that couples section 1983 fabrication of evidence and malicious prosecution claims. the plaintiff, wrongly imprisoned for murder for over 20 years, sued various law enforcement officers and others alleging (1) the fabrication of his oral confession that led to the prosecutor filing charges against him and (2) malicious prosecution and (3) coercing him into signing the fabricated confession which was crucial at his trial. Reversing the district court’s grant of summary judgment to the defendants, the Third Circuit explained:

First, we reaffirm what has been apparent for decades to all reasonable police officers: a police officer who fabricates evidence against a criminal defendant to obtain his conviction violates the defendant’s constitutional right to due process of law. Second, we reinstate[plaintiff’s]  malicious prosecution claim, principally because the prosecutor instrumental in the initiation of the criminal case against [plaintiff] has acknowledged that the false confession the [defendants] claimed they obtained from [plaintiff] contributed to the prosecutor’s decision to charge [plaintiff], and for that reason we will not treat the decision to prosecute as an intervening act absolving [defendants] from liability. Moreover, without that false confession, there would not have been direct evidence linking [plaintiff] to the crimes so that the prosecutor would not have had cause to prosecute [plaintiff]. …

In the course of its discussion in Halsey, the Third Circuit commented that in Johnson v. Knorr, 477 F.3d 75 (3rd Cir. 2007), it had not addressed the question, which it now answered in the affirmative, whether a fabrication claim could give rise to a stand-alone due process cause of action. It also observed that in this case any Fourth Amendment seizure had long since ended: it was the fabricated evidence that led to the unfair trial, the wrongful conviction and plaintiff’s incarceration. Further, this was analytically different from a section 1983 malicious prosecution claim as to which probable cause is a defense. Finally, as to plaintiff’s section 1983 Fourth Amendment malicious prosecution claim, the Third Circuit determined that the prosecutor’s decision to prosecute was not an intervening act that severed the initiation of prosecution from the defendants. The district court erred in concluding that the prosecutor’s decision to prosecute was made without regard to the defendants’ alleged misconduct. The district court further erred in finding that there would have been probable cause even without plaintiff’s confession: there were genuine issues of material fact on this question.

Massey v. Ojaniit (4th Circuit)

The Fourth Circuit cited the Third Circuit’s decision in Halsey in Massey v. Ojaniit, 759 F.3d 343 (4th Cir. 2014), another case coupling section 1983 fabrication of evidence and malicious prosecution claims. In this case, the plaintiff, released after almost twelve years of imprisonment, sued city police officers alleging that they fabricated evidence against him at trial to obtain his conviction in violation of due process. Ruling against the plaintiff, the Fourth Circuit observed that fabrication of evidence standing alone was not enough: the plaintiff had to allege adequate facts to show that the loss of liberty–his conviction and subsequent incarceration–was caused by the fabrication. This requirement included both cause in fact and proximate cause. Here, however, the plaintiff’s conviction was not caused by the alleged fabrication because the prosecution focused at trial on positive in-court identifications. In addition, the conviction was not the foreseeable result of the alleged fabrication.

The plaintiff in Massey also alleged a Fourth Amendment malicious prosecution claim, focusing on the fabricated evidence’s role in bringing about plaintiff’s arrest and his prosecution. Plaintiff lost here as well because he did not allege sufficient facts to undermine the grand jury’s probable cause determination. In other words, he did not sufficiently allege materiality of the fabricated evidence: even removing the fabricated evidence, there was sufficient evidence for a finding of probable cause.


Both cases recognize the availability of stand-alone due process fabrication of evidence claims. But while the plaintiff in Halsey properly alleged that the fabricated evidence led to his unfair trial, conviction and incarceration, the plaintiff in Massey did not.

Both cases also have in common section 1983 Fourth Amendment malicious prosecution claims and the all-important inquiry into causation–cause in fact and proximate cause–as well as the requirement of absence of probable cause. The Halsey plaintiff was able to persuade the Third Circuit that the prosecutor’s decision to prosecute was not a superseding cause and that there was a triable issue regarding the absence of probable cause. In contrast, the Massey plaintiff ‘s allegations were insufficient to persuade the Fourth Circuit that the grand jury’s probable cause determination was not a cause in fact of his arrest and prosecution.


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Written by snahmod

June 1, 2015 at 8:39 am

Section 1983 Malicious Prosecution (V): A Recent Seventh Circuit Decision

I blogged on Sept. 11, 2009, about the basic elements of so-called section 1983malicious prosecution” claims. I then blogged on 9-8-11, 9-26-11, 8-7-13 and 4-8-14 about section 1983 malicious prosecution cases in the circuits.

What follows is an important recent Seventh Circuit decision dealing with such claims, a decision that I ran across in preparing the 2015 Update to my treatise, CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES LITIGATION: THE LAW OF SECTION 1983 (4th ed. West).

A subsequent post will address several other recent circuit court decisions dealing with section 1983 malicious prosecution claims. But this Seventh Circuit decision deserves its own post.

Llovet v. City of Chicago (7th Cir. 2014)

In Llovet v. City of Chicago, 761 F.3d 759 (7th Cir. 2014), a decision written by Judge Posner, the plaintiff, acquitted in state court of aggravated battery, then sued police officers and the City of Chicago alleging section 1983 malicious prosecution under both due process and the Fourth Amendment.

The Due Process Claim

Affirming the dismissal of plaintiff’s due process-based claim on the authority of Newsome v. McCabe, 319 F.3d 301 (7th Cir. 2003), the Seventh Circuit, refusing to overrule Newsome, reaffirmed that case’s holding that such a suit, insofar as it is based on due process, is available only where the forum state does not provide an adequate remedy. Here, Illinois provided such a remedy.

The Fourth Amendment Claim

The Seventh Circuit then went on to reject the plaintiff’s additional arguments, premised on a section 1983 Fourth Amendment malicious prosecution theory, that “the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition of seizures of persons without probable cause does not terminate when the person arrested becomes detained pursuant to legal process (normally an arraignment …); and further that a [Fourth Amendment] claim … for malicious prosecution ‘accrues upon the favorable termination of criminal proceedings’ and thus does not have to be filed within the statute of limitations for the unlawful arrest.”

According to the Seventh Circuit in Llovet, a seizure was necessary for a Fourth Amendment-based malicious prosecution claim (the possible existence of which Newsome did not deny). Here, the initial seizure was supported by probable cause because the plaintiff was already in jail on a misdemeanor charge and was unable to make bail. Also, there was no causal relation between the aggravated battery charge and the deprivation of plaintiff’s liberty in being arrested and jailed on the misdemeanor charge. Even if the plaintiff was in jail longer than he would have been had it not been for the defendants’ alleged framing of him for aggravated battery, the initial seizure was still supported by probable cause.

The Continuing Seizure Doctrine

The Seventh Circuit then rejected the continuing seizure doctrine in this case. For one thing, Heck v. Humphrey, 512 U.S. 477 (1994), and Wallace v. Kato, 549 U.S. 384 (2007), implied that the Fourth Amendment falls out of the picture when detention by arrest becomes detention by arraignment. For another, some of the other circuits did not accept the continuing seizure argument. The Seventh Circuit also expressed concern that the continuing seizure doctrine would unduly enlarge the scope of the Fourth Amendment. Finally, the court rejected the plaintiff’s alternative argument that there was a second seizure in this case when the filing of the aggravated battery charge caused the plaintiff to be held in jail longer than he would otherwise have been for the misdemeanor charge. “There is a difference between seizing a person and not letting him go.” In the latter situation, the due process clause becomes applicable.

See also Welton v. Anderson, 770 F.3d 670 (7th Cir. 2014), reaffirming that the continuing seizure doctrine is not the law in the Seventh Circuit.


Llovet certainly covers a lot of section 1983 malicious prosecution ground: due process, the Fourth Amendment and, especially, continuing seizures.

For those interested in the subject, Llovet is worth reading in its entirety.



Written by snahmod

May 11, 2015 at 3:01 pm

DeShaney in the Circuits (VI): Some Recent Decisions

I have blogged previously about how the Supreme Court’s controversial DeShaney decision has fared in the circuits. DeShaney held that as a general matter governments have no affirmative substantive due process duty to protect persons from private harm. The first post was on 8-22-11; the second was on 6-1-12; the third was on 5-20-13; the fourth was on 6-6-13 and the most recent was on August 28, 2014.

Here are four 2014 DeShaney-related decisions from the Fifth and Eighth Circuits and the Supreme Court of New Jersey. I came across these cases when preparing the 2015 Update to my treatise, CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES LITIGATION: THE LAW OF SECTION 1983 (4th ed. West).

Fifth Circuit: Lance v. Lewisville Independent School District

Where a fourth grade special needs student who had been bullied locked himself inside the school nurse’s bathroom and then took his own life, his parents and his estate sued the school district under § 1983 and substantive due process. The Fifth Circuit affirmed the district court’s grant of summary judgment to the school district. The Fifth Circuit rejected the application of the special relationship theory, the state danger-creation theory and the caused-to-be-subjected theory. No special relationship between the decedent and the school district existed in the case pursuant to the en banc decision of the Fifth Circuit in Doe ex rel Magee, 675 F.3d 849 (5th Cir. 2012)(en banc). Also, there was no genuine issue of material fact in dispute regarding the state-created danger theory even if that theory were to be applied: the school district did not affirmatively place the decedent in danger, there was no evidence that the school district knew that decedent’s suicide was imminent and the plaintiffs did not show that the school district created a dangerous environment for the decedent. Finally, the caused-to-be subject theory has not been adopted by the Fifth Circuit. Lance v. Lewisville Independent School District, 2014 WL 805452 (5th Cir. 2014).

Eighth Circuit: Montgomery v. City of Ames and Gladden v. Richbourg

The plaintiff sued a city, police officers and others alleging a substantive due process violation arising out of the shooting of the plaintiff by a third person who broke into her house and shot her three times. She alleged that the defendants created the danger that the assailant would attack her through their deliberate indifference. Montgomery v. City of Ames, 2014 WL 1387033 (8th Cir. 2014). Ruling for the defendants on this issue, the Eighth Circuit noted that the assailant was subject to a protective order, stemming from his conviction for domestic-abuse assault, which prohibited him from being near the plaintiff and from contacting her. However, it determined that the police officer who spoke with the assailant about the plaintiff’s allegations, but did not arrest him despite plaintiff’s warnings, did not act with the requisite deliberate indifference to her safety. There were conflicting accounts about whether the assailant had in fact violated the protective order, and this meant a reasonable jury could not conclude that the officer acted recklessly or in a conscience shocking manner just because he did not arrest the assailant before an investigation the next day.

In Gladden v. Richbourg, 2014 WL 3608521 (8th Cir. 2014), the decedent died of hypothermia after police officers, who had determined that he was mildly intoxicated, took him from a restaurant in a city to an isolated off-ramp outside the city at the county line even though he had asked the officers to take him to his sister’s house in the next county. The decedent’s due process rights were not violated, according to the Eighth Circuit. There was no special relationship because the harm suffered did not occur in police custody. Also, the officers did not act with the requisite reckless/conscience shocking state of mind under the danger creation theory because, even though it was bitterly cold, decedent was only mildly intoxicated, appeared functional to the officers throughout, and thus appeared able to make his way to a guard shack a short distance from where he was dropped off.

Supreme Court of New Jersey: Gormley v. Wood-El

In Gormley v. Wood-El, 2014 WL 2921824 (S. Ct. N.J. 2014), the plaintiff attorney, assigned to represent an involuntarily committed patient at a psychiatric hospital, was brutally attacked by her client in the hospital’s unsupervised day room, “a place where psychotic patients milled about and where violence frequently erupted.” The Supreme Court of New Jersey, ruling for the attorney in her § 1983 claim against hospital officials and others, held that the plaintiff had a substantive due process right to be free from state created dangers and that this right was clearly established in September 2005, when the attorney was attacked and seriously injured. The plaintiff was a member of a discrete class of victims subject to foreseeable harm in the volatile day room created by the defendants. Also, the defendants exercised total control over the plaintiff and the day room meeting and they knew of the special dangers that the client might pose to the unsuspecting plaintiff. Further, there was sufficient evidence of deliberate indifference constituting conscience shocking conduct. Among other things, expert testimony indicated that the level of violence in this psychiatric hospital was unique. Justice LeVecchia, joined by Justice Patterson, dissented, 2014 WL 2921824, *20, arguing that the plaintiff did not make out a substantive due process claim and that the defendants in any event did not violate clearly established law.


As I and others have frequently noted, DeShaney issues typically arise in tragic circumstances, and these cases are no exception. Plaintiffs attempt to end-run the DeShaney no affirmative duty rule by using either the special relationship theory or the danger-creation theory or both.

However, it remains difficult for plaintiffs to prevail even on these theories, as the Fifth and Eighth Circuit cases demonstrate. Only in Gormley did the danger-creation theory work in combination with the special relationship theory by virtue of the total control exercised by the hospital officials over the plaintiff attorney, as found by the Supreme Court of New Jersey.

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Written by snahmod

April 10, 2015 at 11:54 am

Come to My Section 1983 Conference April 16-17, 2015

I invite you to join me in Chicago at the 32nd annual Section 1983 Civil Rights Litigation Conference on Thursday and Friday, April 16-17, 2015. This two-day seminar is designed for municipal and state attorneys, plaintiffs’ attorneys and criminal defense attorneys. It is always up to date and is useful for both attorneys new to the subject and experienced attorneys.

Whatever your level of expertise, I believe you will benefit from this program. It is a very good value and features some of the very best academics and litigators around.

If you have any questions about the program itself, please feel free to email me at

What follows is relevant information provided by Chicago-Kent’s CLE department.


Program Speakers

Sheldon H. Nahmod, Distinguished Professor of Law, IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law
Gerald M. Birnberg, Williams, Birnberg, & Andersen LLP
Karen M. Blum, Associate Dean & Professor of Law, Suffolk University Law School
Erwin Chemerinsky, Founding Dean & Distinguished Professor of Law, University of California, Irvine School of Law
Laura Schauer Ives, Kennedy, Kennedy, & Ives LLC 
Rosalie B. Levinson, Phyllis and Richard Duesenberg Professor of Law, Valparaiso University School of Law
John B. Murphey, Rosenthal, Murphey, Coblentz, & Donahue

Program Highlights

  • Elements of the §1983 Claim
  • Individual Immunities
  • Equal Protection: Hot Topics
  • Practical Considerations in §1983 Litigation
  • SCOTUS 2013 Term, plus important forthcoming decisions in the Supreme Court’s 2014 Term
  • Municipal and Supervisory Liability
  • Attorney’s Fees and Related Ethical Issues
  • Immigration-Related Issues in Litigating Civil Rights Claims
  • Procedural Defenses: The Basics

Key Event Information

Date: April 16-17, 2015

Registration, Breakfast: 8:00 am (both days)

Program: 8:50 am–5 pm Thursday; 9:00 am–3:30 pm Friday
Networking Reception: 5:00 pm Thursday


IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law
565 W. Adams Street
Chicago, IL 60661

IL MCLE credit:
11.25 hrs, including 1.5 ethics pending approval.

Other state MCLE credit:

Want to know if MCLE credit is available for your state?  Call us at 312.906.5090.

For a complete conference brochure: click here

To learn more or to register now, go to or call 312.906-5090.

Written by snahmod

March 23, 2015 at 9:25 am


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